A vitrectomy is the removal of the vitreous from the eye.

Surgical removal can improve the visual function of the eye, rejuvenate the retina, or eliminate otherwise untreatable inflammation. The "empty" vitreous cavity is then filled by the eye itself with liquid (aqueous humor) or possibly temporarily with a substitute such as oil or gas. Vitrectomies are sometimes performed in local anesthesia and more often on an outpatient basis.